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关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

时间:2021/12/16 20:04:15 点击:

  内容提示:船舶货舱舱盖...
我们都知道舱盖的保养和检查的重要性,尤其是装载怕湿货,或吸湿货,如谷物,化肥,钢制货等等,一旦舱盖保养不当,很可能造成货损问题,甚至引起安全问题,船期延误,解租以及经济损失等等一系列问题。所以,本期分享一点有关舱盖的保养知识,文末还列出46个实用的英文问答清单,借以引导我们把握舱盖保养方面的重点,以及相关注意事项。本内容仅仅抛砖引玉,引发思考为目的,内容仅供学习与参考。

例如,装载钢制货物,如下表所述,其可能遭受若干类型的损害。在适当的情况下,可能对货舱整体完好性产生影响的舱盖、船舱结构、通风系统、舱底水系统及相关的管路系统应处于令人满意的状况。
关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

1.舱盖、船吊、通风和其他系统
总体而言,在装货前,对舱盖和其他系统的状况进行检查。在此方面,应检查以下特定项目,以确保其处于良好可用状态:
舱盖橡胶密封件。所有密封件(垫圈填料)均应处于良好状态。更换或换新时都应当更换整体长度。不得对密封件的部分长度进行修理,且不得使其存在间隙。密封件不得有超过0.4英寸(10毫米)的永久性或不均匀压印,且不应存在图-1中所示的硬化、磨损或剥落。
关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-1 有着过多永久性沟纹的橡胶密封件应当换新。

2.舱盖压条。压条应当表面均匀,而且不存在损坏和严重变形。
3.舱盖槽形密封条。槽形密封条应当无腐蚀,不存在损坏和变形。
4.舱盖校准。对货舱舱盖的位置进行校准。
5.舱盖滚轮、滚轴、铰链等。滚轮、滚轴、铰链和其他操作用部件和机械装置应处于全面可用状态,无锈蚀,不存在损坏和变形,经适当调校且油润良好。
6.围板止回阀。围板止回阀经检查,应处于可用状态,确保其无阻塞、无腐蚀,并且在适当的情况下,有可用的阀盖。
7.货舱封舱楔、舱盖夹和快速压紧器。所有的封舱楔、舱盖夹和快速压紧器(见图-2)都应具备,保养及油润良好,经适当调校,无损坏和变形,并附带优质垫圈和弹性密封圈。压紧器的橡胶垫圈应当完好、有弹性、未变干,且无油漆。如果在关闭压紧器时需使用不同的压力,则表明舱盖板可能未校准。
关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-2 舱盖压紧器

8.舱盖缓冲垫。舱盖缓冲垫的磨损应当尽可能少,以免使密封件承受过大压力。
9.舱口盖和围板。舱口盖和围板应当无孔洞、裂纹、不密封的缝隙或严重损坏(见图-3)。取样点(如图-4)应当有清晰的标志,配备可使用的封盖。确保舱盖处于适当可用状态,对预防水损或水汽凝结致损有着极为重要的作用。最后,对舱口盖和围板进行任何修理都必须按照制造商说明书进行。

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-3 舱口围板和甲板管系处于不良状况

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-4 气体取样点

10.舱盖液压装置。舱盖液压装置应当无腐蚀,不存在损坏、变形和渗漏,处于全面可用状态,且经过调校。需特别注意舱盖液压控制系统(如管路、阀门、控制箱等)的状况。该等系统应处于完好、密封状态,以防油类渗入或喷入货舱,对舱内货物造成可能的损坏。
11.排水槽。所有排水槽都应当不存在先前的货物残留、锈皮、严重腐蚀或损坏。
12.通风孔。安装好的通风孔应当无腐蚀,不存在损坏和变形。舱盖应处于良好状态,能够自由开合。
13.机械通风瓣和通风舱口。通风瓣和舱口应处于良好工作状态,在关闭时可以适当密封和紧闭,如图-5和图-6所示。

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-5 货舱的机械通风装置

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-6 舱盖板侧面的通风舱口

14.压载舱、顶边舱和其他船舱。双层底压载舱、斜边舱、边舱和顶边舱(如有)应当在装载前,进行流体静力学压力试验,以确定其水密完整性,如图-7所示。压力试验时,应当注意有否水进入舱底水井,因为这可能表明舱底水井的外板或舱底水管路受损。如果靠泊时无法进行压力试验,则应检查货舱内部(包括管路)有否进水迹象。

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-7 压载舱水压试验

15.舱底水吸入口和货舱底部口。对这些项目(包括舱底水井的止回阀功能)进行彻底检查、测试,并证明其全面可用。打开舱底水井,确认其清洁程度,并使用粗麻布将滤板全部遮住。对货舱底部的所有开口进行检查,以确定其水密完整性,并使开口妥善密闭。
16.穿过货舱的测深管和其他管路。对管路系统进行检查,确定无垃圾。并且对舱内管路(包括压载水管)、测深管或船舱通气管进行仔细检查,以确保其无孔洞、严重锈皮,并受到妥善保护。此外,还应检查测深管塞,以确保其水密性。
17.船吊。货物作业中使用的船吊应当在结构上处于令人满意的状况,并清楚标记安全工作载荷。对船吊进行测试/检查,以确保其钢丝绳、吊钩和滑轮处于令人满意的状况,且安全装置全面可用。
18.人孔。当装回人孔盖时,人孔垫圈应当洁净,不存在可能导致渗漏的垃圾和污垢。另外,对所有人孔盖进行检查,以确保其已被均匀地固定住。
19.货舱底部。检查货舱底部的结构完整性,因其可能受到正常磨损或焊接处裂缝的影响。关于货舱底部强度和点载荷要求的说明,请参考转载手册。
20.保存关于舱盖状况的报告。船东应保存关于船上舱盖装置状况的最新书面报告,包括以下各项的详情:
(1) 作为船舶计划保养体系的一部分,所开展的计划内保养和测试工作,以及所进行的任何其他计划外的保养和维修工作;
(2) 在装货港和卸货港进行的舱盖装置可用性检验和测试;
(3) 状况检验;
(4) 使用冲水和/或超声波进行的风雨密性试验,见图-8 和图-9所示。

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-8 冲水试验

皮龙测试要求:
A hose test should be carried out with water delivered at a pressure of between 2-3 bar, and from a hose nozzle of 20-30 mm in diameter. The jet of water should be directed straight at the hatch cover from a distance of between 1-1.5 metres with the operator walking at a speed of 1-2 m/sec.

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-9 超声波试验


其他几种测试方法
Visual observation视觉观察
Look for evidence of water ingress in the cargo and hold when the hatch covers are opened. Presence of leakage traces on the inner hatch coaming plate and on top of the cargo are a clear sign that water infiltration has occurred.

Chalk test 粉笔测试
Chalk is applied to the coaming and cross-joint compression bars. Closing and battening down the hatch covers leaves an imprint on the rubber packing. No mark means that no contact exists.

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-10 粉笔测试

Air test 空气测试
The hold to be tested is pressurised and the joints of areas to be monitored are covered with a soap solution. Bubbles in the soap indicate that air is passing through the area being tested.

Light infiltration test 光渗透测试
A quick look inside the hold to see if any light from the outside is passing through the hatch covers.Light passing through will have a typical ‘diamond’ like appearance.

谨慎的做法是,船东应保持货舱舱盖处于良好可用状态,并制定有效的检验与保养方案。当发生货物索赔时,上述做法将有助于证明船东已履行适当注意义务。

与舱盖状况有关的其他报告和检验也可用于补充和/或完善船东的检验与保养方案。船级检验和报告、船厂检验、第三方进行的状况检验(包括超声波和冲水试验)可能有助于确定货舱和舱盖的实际状况。同样地,租船人的检验和起租检验也可提供额外信息,但应当与船东的舱盖保养总体方案一起考虑。

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识
图-11 在温哥华验舱过后,装载白色氯化钾

以下附加的46个英文知识问答,仅供参考:
Q1 IN ORDER TO FAMILIARISE YOURSELF WITH THE CORRECT AND SAFE OPERATION OF THE HATCH COVER ARRANGEMENTS ON BOARD OF YOUR SHIP, YOU SHOULD:
a) Consult the manufacturer’s hatch cover manual
b) Ask the officer in charge to explain how the hatch covers work
c) Try to operate the hatch covers yourself and find out how the system worksby trial and error

Q2 WHEN OPERATING HATCH COVERS, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT:
a) The procedures specified in the manufacturer’s manual for the hatch covers are always observed
b) Safety precautions and safe working practices are strictly followed
c) You hold an STCW certificate for hatch cover operations

Q3 IN ORDER TO REMAIN WATER-TIGHT, HATCH COVERS MUST:
a) Not move at all when secured to the hatch coamings
b) Not move at all when the ship is flexing at sea
c) Move slightly when secured to the hatch coamings to allow for the ship flexing at sea

Q4 IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY AND CORRECTLY DESCRIBE A HATCH COVER SYSTEM, YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND:
a) The type of hatch covers fitted
b) How the hatch covers are opened, closed and secured
c) Typical hatch cover components and their purpose

Q5 IN ORDER TO PREVENT THE INGRESS OF WATER, HATCH COVERS REQUIRE:
a) An effective sealing system
b) An efficient drainage system
c) An efficient opening and closing system

Q6 IN ORDER TO BE EFFICIENT, THE RUBBER PACKING NEEDS TO:
a) Be flexible and resilient
b) Be hard and resilient
c) Show a deep permanent imprint

Q7 STEEL-TO-STEEL CONTACT:
a) Means that the hatch covers are supported by steelwork so that their full weight is not borne by the rubber packing
b) Avoids over-compression of the rubber packing
c) Maintains the resilience of the rubber packing
d) Adds to the strength of the hatch covers

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

Q8 WHEN THE RUBBER PACKING SHOWS A DEEP PERMANENT IMPRINT OR IS PERMANENTLY DEFORMED, THIS MEANS THAT:
a) The steel-to-steel contact arrangements are worn beyond their design limits
b) The rubber packing has lost its elasticity
c) The hatch covers are tight
d) The securing cleats have been over-tightened

Q9 IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT THE HATCH COVERS ARE MAINTAINED IN GOOD CONDITION AND IN A PROPER MANNER:
a) Every opportunity should be taken to inspect the hatch covers when they are open in port
b) Hatch covers should always be repaired with original spare parts
c) A written record of inspections, tests, maintenance, repairs and spare parts should be kept.

Q10 GOOD PRACTICE MEANS THAT HATCH COVERS SHOULD BE:
a) Opened and closed by one person only
b) Inspected and maintained regularly
c) Tested frequently

Q11 IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN THE RUBBER PACKING IN GOOD CONDITION AND TO AVOID FRICTION:
a) A thin film of grease approved by the manufacturer should be applied regularly to the rubber packing
b) The rubber packing should be well lubricated with any type of grease available on board
c) The rubber packing should be cleaned to remove dirt and the remnants of previous cargoes

Q12 IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN WATER-TIGHTNESS, THE RUBBER PACKING SHOULD:
a) Be compressed to the design compression specified by the hatch cover manufacturer
b) Be very hard
c) Just touch (or “kiss”) the compression bar gently

Q13 MINOR DAMAGE TO COMPRESSION BARS, SUCH AS MINOR CUTS AND GOUGES:
a) Are usually acceptable and should not affect the sealing ability of the hatch cover system
b) Should be added to the list of dry-dock repairs
c) Are unacceptable as compression bars must always be completely straight,level and structurally sound

Q14 BEARING PADS:
a) Transmit vertical forces from the hatch covers to the coaming structure
b) Ensure that the hatch covers are in the optimum sealing position
c) Allow movement between the hatch covers and the hatch coamings when the ship begins to flex at sea
d) Allow the desired compression to be regulated

Q15 THE INBOARD (OR DOUBLE) DRAINAGE CHANNEL:
a) Is the last safety barrier against water ingress
b) Is the first safety barrier against water ingress
c) Should be cleaned to remove dirt, scale and cargo debris before the hatch covers are closed and secured

Q16 LOCATORS:
a) Are used to ensure steel-to-steel contact
b) Guide the panels into their correct closing position
c) Should be flexible

Q17 STOPPERS:
a) Restrict the movement of the panels both transversely and longitudinally
b) Are fitted to the trackway to prevent the covers from overrunning the edge of the hatch coaming
c) Should not have any clearance

关于货舱舱盖的保养知识

Q18 THE USE OF FLEXIBLE HOSES AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR AN APPROVED NON-RETURN DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
a) Is good practice and is strongly recommended
b) May be accepted as a temporary solution only
c) Is bad practice - they should never be used.

Q19 APART FROM AFFECTING THE OPERATIONAL STATUS OF A HATCH COVER SYSTEM, LEAKING HYDRAULIC FLUID IS ALSO:
a) A slip and fall hazard
b) A pollution hazard
c) An indication that the hydraulic fluid is too thin
d) A cargo contamination risk

Q20 WHEN OPENING OR CLOSING THE HATCH COVERS, THE FOLLOWING SHOULD ALWAYS BE MONITORED CLOSELY:
a) Signs of uneven or unusual movement
b) The temperature of the hydraulic oil
c) The speed of operation
d) Vibration

Q21 QUICK ACTING CLEATS:
a) Are used to ensure steel-to-steel contact
b) Should allow the panels to move to a limited extent
c) Are used to hold the panels in place when at sea
d) Should be tightened very hard in order to prevent the panels from moving at sea
e) Should be closed in a specific order

Q22 HOSE TESTING FOR CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY PURPOSES SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT:
a) At a pressure of 2-3 bars, aiming the hose at the cross joints and the perimeter of the hatch covers
b) By means of the Emergency Fire Pump
c) At a speed of 1-2 metres/second (walking pace)
d) With a 20-30 mm diameter hose fitted with a 12 mm diameter nozzle

Q23 WHEN HOSE TESTING, THE FIRST INDICATION THAT HATCH COVERS ARE NOT WATER-TIGHT IS IF WATER IS SEEN:
a) Dripping from the drain valves
b) Leaking into the cargo hold
c) Dripping into the cargo hold and from the drain valves simultaneously

Q24 THE MAIN ADVANTAGES OF HOSE TESTING ARE THAT:
a) It requires no specialised equipment
b) Extensive training is not necessary
c) It is foolproof
d) Evidence of leakage requires no explanation

Q25 THE MAIN DRAWBACKS OF HOSE TESTING ARE THAT:
a) The test is only an indication of contact, not compression
b) If leakage occurs, any cargo in the hold might be damaged
c) Debris and oil on deck may be washed overboard causing pollution
d) The test cannot be carried out properly in sub-zero temperatures
e) It is difficult to locate the precise area of leakage
f) The test can only be carried out in daylight

Q26 ULTRASONIC TESTING FOR CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY (AND PERHAPS P&I) PURPOSES SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT:
a) By a properly trained and certificated operator
b) By a Classification Society surveyor only
c) Using equipment type-approved by Class
d) Using properly calibrated equipment

Q27 THE MAIN ADVANTAGES OF ULTRASONIC TESTING ARE THAT:
a) There is no risk to cargo already inside the hold
b) There is no risk of polluting the dock water
c) The exact location of a leak, or lack of compression, can be pinpointed easily
d) Anyone can use it
e) It provides an indication of compression as well as contact

Q28 WHEN INSPECTING HATCH COVERS, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT:
a) A visual inspection is carried out together with an approved tightness test
b) Only a visual test is carried out
c) Only a tightness test is carried out

Q29 THE USE OF HATCH SEALING TAPE, EXPANSION FOAM OR OTHER TYPES OF SEALANTS:
a) Is good practice and is recommended where possible
b) Is a useful way of postponing hatch cover repairs
c) May accelerate corrosion in areas of contact
d) May be used as an additional precaution if the hatch covers are in good condition and water-tight.

Q30 IN ORDER TO PROVE THAT DUE DILIGENCE HAS BEEN EXERCISED,THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE ON BOARD:
a) Manufacturer’s manual for the hatch covers
b) Records of inspections, maintenance and repairs
c) Hatch cover test reports

Q31 PACKING RUBBERS SHOULD BE REPLACED:
a) If they have a permanent imprint
b) If there is a permanent imprint which exceeds the manufacturer’s specified design limits
c) Every 2 years

Q32 WHEN HATCH COVERS HAVE BEEN OPENED:
a) The hatch cover panel securing devices should be engaged immediately
b) The hydraulic power unit should be left running
c) Extra chains, ropes or lashings should be applied as an additional precaution

Q33 IF THE RUBBER PACKING SUSTAINS LOCAL DAMAGE (EG A CUT OR TEAR):
a) An insert of less than 50 cms in length should be fitted
b) An insert of between 50-100 cms in length should be fitted
c) No repairs are necessary if the damaged area is less than 10 cms in length

Q34 WHEN REPLACING THE RUBBER PACKING:
a) Moulded pieces should be fitted first, before the linear rubber
b) The retaining channels should be cleaned and painted before the new rubber packing is fitted
c) It should not be glued into place if the rubber packing fits tightly within the retaining channel
d) It should be glued into place using an adhesive approved by the manufacturer

Q35 A BACKING STRIP IS:
a) A small rubber strip placed within the retaining channel in order to increase compression
b) Just another term for “rubber packing”
c) Rubber that is resistant to mineral oil

Q36 AN END PIECE IS:
a) A short, solid rubber strip, usually fitted to the end of the perimeter seal, which comes in contact with the opposite panel (“nosing”)
b) A device which prevents the hatch covers from overrunning the edge of the coaming table
c) The end of the hatch coaming

Q37 A PERMANENT IMPRINT IS:
a) A deep mark in the rubber packing left by the compression bar which does not spring back into shape afterwards
b) Another term for “design compression”
c) A rubber packing design feature which ensures that the compression bar provides a water-tight seal

Q38 WHEN THE IMPRINT ON THE RUBBER PACKING IS TO THE LEFT OR RIGHT OF THE CENTRELINE, THIS MEANS THAT:
a) The hatch cover panels are misarranged
b) The rubber packing should be replaced
c) The hatch cover panels are working normally

Q39 HATCH COAMING BRACKETS SHOULD BE CHECKED REGULARLY FOR:
a) Deformation
b) Wastage
c) Cracks (especially at the base)

Q40 WHEN TESTING HATCH COVERS FOR TIGHTNESS:
a) All openings should be checked
b) A visual inspection should be carried out after the test
c) A visual inspection does not need to be carried out if the results of the test are satisfactory

Q41 WHEN DAMAGED COMPRESSION BARS ARE REPAIRED, CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT:
a) The surface of the repaired section is completely smooth
b) The thickness of the repaired section is the same as the thickness of the original compression bar
c) There are no height differences between the old and new sections, particularly at the joints

Q42 THE PRESENCE OF RUST STREAKS ON THE INNER HATCH COAMING PLATING:
a) Is normal as hatch covers always leak slightly in way of the cross joints
b) Indicates that the hatch covers are not tight and have leaked
c) Means that painting is required to avoid other people noticing that hatch covers have been leaking

Q43 IF A HOLE IS FOUND IN THE HATCH TOP PLATING:
a) The hole should be covered with hatch sealing tape
b) A doubler plate should be welded over the hole
c) An insert repair should be carried out under Class supervision

Q44 CRACKS FOUND IN THE HATCH COAMING OR COAMING BRACKETS:
a) Should be repaired without notifying Class
b) Should be repaired under Class supervision
c) Are acceptable if they are less than 5 cms in length

Q45 THE HYDRAULIC OIL IN THE HATCH COVER POWER UNIT SHOULD:
a) Be replaced automatically every 2 years
b) Be analysed regularly and replaced as necessary
c) Always be kept at 35°C

Q46 IF THE COMPRESSION BAR IS CORRODED:
a) Hatch sealing tape may be placed on top of the compression bar to make it smooth again
b) A piece of rubber hose slit lengthwise may be fitted over the top of the compression bar to make it smooth again
c) The scale should be chipped off, the compression bar should be coated and the hatch covers should be adjusted as necessary。

最后附言:对舱盖日常的保养和检查不能少,否则一旦出了问题,往往都是大事。为了保护船舶,船东和租家的利益,更为了自己的利益,还是谨慎处理为好。工作不易,且行且珍惜!本期就分享到此,感谢您的阅读!

作者:52航海 来源:52航海

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