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AMSA:关于做好救助艇维修保养的通函

时间:2017/11/27 14:56:22 点击:

  内容提示:AMSA以及PSCOs表示他们发现越来越多的海员不熟悉救助艇(尤其是外挂艇机)操作以及如何对其进行维修保养的情况发生。而由于这样的不熟悉在遇到真正的救助行动时极有可能带来灾难性的后果。...
近日澳大利亚海事安全局就船舶救助艇的操作及维修保养发出通告,并提出一些主要问题希望引起各船各船东以及海员的注意。

AMSA以及PSCOs表示他们发现越来越多的海员不熟悉救助艇(尤其是外挂艇机)操作以及如何对其进行维修保养的情况发生。而由于这样的不熟悉在遇到真正的救助行动时极有可能带来灾难性的后果。

AMSA表示,救助艇原本就是用于在紧急情况下救助遇险人员使用。保持救助艇随时可用状态是船长们的责任,而所有海员也都有责任知道怎样正确的操作救助艇。
AMSA还列举了多个常发现的问题,希望引起注意:

一些海员在启动马达后忘记添加冷却水,这将极易导致水泵以及艇机损坏。
生产商的使用说明书常常现场不可见,也经常有操作人员对艇机的以及其附属系统型号不了解。
AMSA还指出一些在PSC检查过程中出现的各种具体缺陷,比如:
冷却水进水口/网被堵住。
冷却水管道被沉积盐分堵住。
冷却水监测孔被堵住。
叶轮出现磨损

为了解决上述问题,AMSA提出了一些指导性意见:

SOLAS以及ISM CODE均要求船上海员熟悉救助艇的操作方式以及紧急设备的保养。ISM CODE10.3要求管理公司明晰可能会突然出现失效从而导致危险情况的发生的情况,并要求在安全管理体系(SMS)中提供具体解决方案,以提高此类设备的可靠性。

SMS体系应确保救助艇和/或舷外马达的维修保养程序正确有效并被要求列入船舶维修保养计划之中。生产商的说明书也必须在船上,操作说明书立即可用。

****以下是AMSA通函原文****
MARINE NOTICE 12/2017
Operation and maintenance of rescue boat outboard motors

Purpose
The purpose of this marine notice is to draw to the attention of ship owners, operators, masters, officers, seafarer training organisations and industry organisations the importance of maintaining rescue boats in good working order ready for immediate use. This marine notice highlights operation and maintenance issues that the ship’s crew and operators should be aware of.

Background
Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) Port Sate Control Officers (PSCOs) are increasingly finding that some crew members are unfamiliar with the operation and maintenance of outboard motors.

A lack of understanding on how outboard motors are operated and maintained could result in poor performance, or total failure, of these motors. This is an unacceptable risk during a rescue operation that could have catastrophic consequences.

Rescue Boats
A rescue boat is designed to rescue persons in distress and to marshal survival craft. Masters have the responsibility for ensuring that rescue boats and associated equipment are maintained in good working order at all times.

Rescue boats may be either of rigid or inflated construction or a combination of both and are fitted with an inboard engine or outboard motor. The most common type of propulsion system used for a rescue boat is a petrol driven outboard motor.

During recent Port State Control (PSC) inspections, AMSA PSCOs have identified rescue boat outboard motor operational and maintenance issues which are described below.

Cooling Water

Outboard motor cooling water circulation is provided by a cooling water pump incorporating a rubber impeller and is confirmed during operation by a jet of water through a tell-tale hole located below the power head.

Outboard motors are not designed to be operated without cooling water, even for short periods of time, unlike inboard engines which are designed to be capable of operating for not less than 5 min after starting from cold with the lifeboat out of the water (International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code Chapter IV/ 4.4).

While proper procedures should be followed during routine testing and operation of outboard motors, AMSA PSCOs have observed that some crew operate the motor without any cooling water, which will result in damage of the water pump and possibly result in failure.

Even testing using an external pressurised water supply has limitations, as these do not demonstrate that the water pump is capable of taking suction and circulating water through the motor.

An effective operational test is to submerge the motor leg in water to a depth which will cover the inlet ports. When the motor is started, the pump circulates water through the motor and out through the exhaust outlet. The pump condition and circulation is verified by observing the cooling water flow through the water flow indication (tell-tale) hole as indicated in Figure 1. The manufacturer’s advice with respect to flushing of cooling water passages with fresh water after use must always be followed.
Figure: 1
AMSA:关于做好救助艇维修保养的通函
During inspections of outboard motors, AMSA PSCOs have found various defects including:

blocked cooling water inlet mesh/ports;
tell-tale holes blocked by salt deposits, broken pieces of rubber or by paint;
worn out impellers (Figure 2);
salt water deposits in cooling water passages.
All these defects could lead to serious engine damage due to overheating.
Figure: 2
AMSA:关于做好救助艇维修保养的通函
Fuel and Oil

Rescue boats have either 2-stroke or 4-stroke petrol (gasoline) outboard motors (diesel outboard motors are available but not common). Use of improper fuel can damage the engine or result in starting difficulties.

AMSA PSCOs have found that manufacturer’s operating manuals are not always available and crew are unsure of the type of outboard motor fitted and its associated systems. 4-stroke motors require no mixing of oil and fuel. Some 2-stroke designs use oil injection systems, while others require pre-mixing of oil and fuel.

Fuel problems are the most common cause for an engine failing to start. Generally, the fuel is either too old, contaminated, not the correct mix, or may not be able to be ignited due to the spark plugs being fouled by oily residue.

Sufficient fuel (for maintaining a speed of at least 6 knots for a period of at least 4 hrs) must be carried on-board and stored in approved containers. Fuel systems are to be approved and fitted tanks are to be specially protected against fire & explosion. (LSA Code Chapter V/ 5.1.1.8).

Best practice guidance

Safety of Life At Sea (SOLAS) and the International Safety management (ISM) Code require that ships crews are properly familiarised with the operation and maintenance of emergency equipment, including rescue boat outboard motors. The ISM Code, under element 10.3, requires that companies identify equipment the sudden operational failure of which may result in a hazardous situation. Specific measures should be provided in the Safety Management System (SMS) to promote the reliability of such equipment.

The ship’s SMS should ensure that effective maintenance procedures for rescue boat inboard and/or outboard motors are developed and included in the ship’s planned maintenance system. Manufacturers instruction manuals must also be available on-board, as should a fully inventory of the manufacturer recommended spares, such as fuel and oil filters, spark-plugs and water pump impeller.

Gary Prosser
Deputy Chief Executive Officer
Australian Maritime Safety Authority
October 2017

GPO Box 2181
CANBERRA ACT 2601


File no: 2017/1830

 

作者:中文部分CAPTAIN-X 来源:信德海事&AMSA

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