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船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项

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  内容提示:船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项 The requirements and precautions of lifebuoys...
船舶救生圈配备及注意事项
The requirements and precautions of lifebuoys

Through the interview and ship inspection, I found that many officers did not know requirements and implement poor maintenance and inspection of life buoys on board, so I made this files, hoping to be helpful to everyone.
在面试和船舶检查中,发现很多驾驶员对简单的救生圈的要求和检查做的不好,所以做了这个总结,希望对大家有所帮助。

First, let’slook through the international conventions, then could understand clearly.
首先,先抄公约吧,公约看完一般就清楚了 

1.Requirements of LSA:
 .1Have an outer diameter of not more than 800 mm and an inner diameter of not less than 400mm;
具有不大于 800mm 的外径及不少于 400mm 的内径;

 .2 Be constructed of inherently buoyant material; it  shall  not  depend upon rushes, cork shavings or granulated cork, any other loose granulated material or any air compartment which depends on inflation for buoyancy;
采用自然浮力材料制成;其浮力应不得依靠灯心草、软木刨片或软木粒,任何其他松散的粒状材料或任何依靠充气的空气室; 

  .3 In general, should have a mass of not less than 2.5kg;
通常应具有不少于 2.5kg 的质量;

if it is intended to operate the quick release arrangement provided for the self-activated smoke signals and self-igniting lights, have a mass of not less than 4 KG.
如救生圈配有自发烟雾信号及自亮灯装置,用于迅速抛投,则应具有不少于 4kg 的质量;

be provided with a quick-release arrangement that will automatically release and activate the signal and associated self-igniting light connected to a lifebuoy having a mass of not more than 4 kg.
配备一迅速抛投装置,该装置将自动投放和启动信号及相关的与救生圈相连的自亮灯,其质量不超过 4kg。

注:这两个 4KG 的重量可能会有人混淆, 第一个指的是救生圈本体的重量;第二个是其连接的投放装置及装备的重量。

  .4 Be fitted with a grabline not less than 9.5 mm in diameter and not less than 4 times the outside diameter of the body of the buoy in length. The grabline shall be secured at four equidistant points around the circumference of the buoy to form four equalloops.
设有直径不少于 9.5mm 及长度不少于救生圈体外直径4倍的把手索1根。把手索应沿救生圈的圆周,系牢在 4 个等距点上,形成 4 个等长的索环。

  .5  Buoyant lifelines required by regulation III/7.1.2shall:
可浮救生索应:
  1)  benon-kinking; 不打纽结;
  2)  haveadiameter of not lessthan8mm;直径不少于 8mm;
Notice:Some ships use the floating rope of lifeboat directly, the diameter may be not enough, because the lifeboat float rope requirement " have the length of not less than 30m float lifeline " did not mention thediameter requirement. Should make sure the difference between the lines. 
有的船舶的浮索直接采用救生艇的,直径可能达不到要求,因为救生艇浮索要求 ”系有长度不小于 30m 浮索的可浮救生环 2 个”并没有提到直径要求。要弄清楚绳索的区别。 
  3) have abreakingstrengthofnot lessthan5kN. 破断强度不少于 5kN。
船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项

2. Requirements of SOLAS:
      Cargo ships shall carry not less than the number of lifebuoys
船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项
      .1 At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with a buoyant lifeline complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.4 of the Part B: Code equal in length to not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, or 30 m, whichever is thegreater.
船舶每舷至少有1个救生圈应装有符合规则 2.1.4要求的可浮救生索,其长度不少于其存放处在最轻载航行水线以上高度的 2倍,或30m,取较大者。
    .2   Not less than one half of the total number of lifebuoys shall be provided with lifebuoy self-igniting lights complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.2 of the Code; not less than two of these shall also be provided with lifebuoy self-activating smoke signals complying with the requirements of paragraph 2.1.3 of the Code and be capable of quick release from the navigation bridge; lifebuoys with lights and those with lights and smoke signals shall be equally distributed on both sides of the ship and shall not be the lifebuoys provided with lifelines in compliance with the requirements of paragraph1.2.
不少于总数一半的救生圈应设有符合规则 2.1.2 要求的自亮灯;这些救生圈中不少于 2 个还应设有符合规则 2.1.3 要求的自发烟雾信号,并应能自驾驶室迅速抛投;设有自亮灯的救生圈和设有自亮灯及自发烟雾信号的救生圈,应均等地分布在船舶两舷,这类救生圈不应是按本条 1.2 要求的装有救生索的救生圈。

Self-igniting lights for lifebuoys on tankers required by regulation 7.1.3 shall be of an electric battery type.
液货船自亮灯应用电池(此电池指的是干电池)

Notice 注意: 
Self-lighting can be a combination of light and smoke; It could  be a separate light + a separate smoke signal
自亮灯可以是灯和烟雾的组合体;也可以是单独的灯+单独的烟雾信号
Pay attention to the mounting position. Do not install outside to affect the maximum shipwidth
注意安装位置,不应装置在外边,影响最大船舶宽度,PSCO 发现会记录缺陷。如下图(2)

船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项
(1)right

船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项
(2)wrong
 
 3) It should not cause a failure to release quickly, as shown in thefigure
不应导致无法快速释放,如图

船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项

原因:分析此轮原来配备应是单独灯+单独烟雾信号,存放在圈外侧的铁盒内,后来供应了图中的组合信号,铁盒放不下,安装在后部,但是安装方向导致无法达到快速释放的目的。 

4.)(USCG 要求):(2002 年7 月8 日)因在美国港口发生烟雾信号误操作引起爆炸导致死亡的事故,因此美国港口要求:
① 议采用防爆型的第三代烟雾信号代替原烟雾信号;
② 无论船上配备的是第二或第三代烟雾信号,在维修保养或移动烟雾信号及其附属装置时,均需将原来用于防止运输工过程中误点燃的安全销插回。当烟雾信号处于正常存放状态时,才将该安全销取去,并需将此安全销存放于烟雾信号和支架附近,以便移动烟雾信号时随时可用。
③ 如果船上继续使用第二代烟雾信号,必须在烟雾信号附近一个显著位置张贴警示标志,警告如果没有插回安全销不得移动烟雾信号。另外在烟雾信号的壳体也需标示“一旦发生误点燃,不得重新将启动机械装置复位,否则将爆炸”等内容。以上警告语可采用船员的工作语言

  .3 Each lifebuoy shall be marked in block capitals of the Roman  alphabet with the name and port of registry of the ship on which it is carried
每个救生圈应以粗体罗马大写字母标明其所属船名和船籍港。

 .4  So distributed as to be readily available on both sides of the ship and as far as practicable on all open decks extending to the ship’s side; at least one shall be placed in the vicinity of the stern; and so stowed as to be capable of being rapidly cast loose, and not permanently secured in anyway.
应分布在船舶两舷容易拿到之处,并在可行范围内,分布在所有延伸到船舷的露天甲板上;至少有 1 个应放在船尾附近;和其存放应能迅速取下,且不应以任何方式使其永久系牢

 .5   Pilot embarkation 引航员登乘处
MSC.1/Circ.1618通函中给出了统一解释,明确了:登离船设备配备的救生圈不计算在SOLAS第III章22.1.1或者III章32.1要求的救生圈最小数量和分布中

  7.1.2   alifebuoyequipped withaself-ignitinglight; 带有自亮灯的救生圈;
  7.1.3   aheavingline.  抛缆绳。

 NOTICE 注意:
 The line is HEAVING LINE, is not the float line required by LSA, should not be attached to the life buoy, (as I thought that the rope maybe used to pull the items carried by the pilot)
此处的绳索是HEAVING LINE, 不是要求的浮索,不要系固在救生圈上,(分析其作用应该是用来吊拉引水员携带的物品)

注意MSC.1/Circ.1331要求和SOLAS不同
目前虽非强制要求,为了避免PSCO不同理解,建议配备

3.3 Lifebuoy A lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light and a buoyant lifeline should be available for immediate use in the vicinity of the embarkation and disembarkation arrangement when in use.
适用于2010年1月1日及以后建造对的船舶,或2010年1月1日之后更换登离船设施的所有船舶
 
该救生圈处于存放状态时,除非能排除该救生圈在弃船时被逃生者误用的可能,救生浮索不应同该救生圈保持连接,仅在应急使用时由使用者进行连接。在登离船设施未使用时,不要放在登离船设备的附近位置上,仅在船舶靠港停泊登离船设施使用时,将其取出放在登离船设施附近以供应急使用。 

3.  OTHERS其他
  .1  There are two kinds of battery: seawater battery and dry battery. The dry battery should be replaced once a year according to the product instructions
救生圈自亮灯有海水电池型和干电池型两种.干电池按产品说明应一年更换一次电池。

 .2  The surface of the life buoy should be orange-red without colordifferent
救生圈外表应为橙红色,且无色差

 .3 The outer surface of the life buoy should be free from concave-convex or cracking
救生圈外表面应无凹凸,无开裂

 .4   Four equally spaced positions along the circumference of the life buoy should be surrounded by reverse reflector tape of  a 50mmwidth
沿救生圈周长四个相等间隔位置应环绕贴有 50mm 宽度的逆向反光带

船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项

  .5  Marked应标明其:
      .Type 型号、
      .Manufacture 制造厂名、
      .Serial No 制造编号、
      .Date制造年月及
      .Mark of approval authority 检验单位的标志。
船舶救生圈配备要求及注意事项

4.   Commondefects常见缺陷
 .1   The number and arrangement of life buoys are inconsistent with the Life Saving EquipmentArrangement
救生圈配备数量、布置与《救生设备布置图》不一致

 .2    The arrangement, installation and dead weight of the life buoy with self-igniting smoke signal and self-igniting light on both wings of the bridge cannot meet the requirement of quick- releasefunction.
驾驶室两翼侧带自发烟雾信号和自亮灯组合的救生圈,其布置、安装和自重达不到迅速释放并且直接掉落到舷外的要求

 .3 The shell and reflector of life buoy are aging and cracked, and the handle cable is aging andbreaking
救生圈外壳、反光带老化开裂,把手索老化、断裂

 .4   Insufficient number of life buoys with self-igniting lights and floating life line; failure of self-ignitinglights
带自亮灯、可浮救生索救生圈数量不足,自亮灯失效或故障

 .5   The name, port of registry are not marked or not clearlymarked
救生圈上船名、船籍港未标识或标识不清

 .6   To be permanently fastened in anyway
以任何方式永久系牢

 .7   Self-igniting lights for lifebuoys on tankers using seawaterbatteries
液货船上使用海水电池的自亮灯

作者:郭船长 来源:船舶管理信息平台

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